Albert Einstein

Theoretical physicist

One of the most influential physicist, who revolutionized the science of physics, and is best known for his general theory of relativity and the equation E=MC2.

Albert Einstein, theories on relativity laid the framework for a new branch of physics, and revolutionized scientists’ understanding – from space and time to gravity and energy.

Einstein’s work is known for its influence on the philosophy of science, as well as having a major impact on the development of atomic energy. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for his contributions to theoretical physics and the evolution of Quantum Theory.

One of the undisputed genius’ of the Twentieth Century, Albert Einstein passed away on April 18, 1955, in Princeton, New Jersey, USA.

Name:   Albert  Einstein
Born:   14 March 1879
Star Sign: Pisces
Died:   18 April 1955
Birthplace: Ulm
Country: Germany
Hermann Einstein
Pauline Koch
Elsa Einstein (m.1919–1936), Mileva Marić (m.1903–1919)
Eduard Einstein, Lieserl Einstein, Hans Albert Einstein

Albert Einstein, was born at Ulm in Württemberg, Germany on March 14, 1879, to Hermann and Pauline Koch Einstein, a Jewish couple. He was two years older than his sister, Maja. Einstein's parents were concerned about his intelligence as he didn't speak until age four. When Einstein was five years old, his father showed him a pocket compass, and he was mystified that invisible forces could deflect the needle.

In 1880, the family moved to Munich. Einstein attended the Luitpold Gymnasium, but struggled with the institution's rigid pedagogical style. Einstein also developed a passion for music and was a '’brilliant’' violin player. When Einstein was 12 he discovered a book of geometry, which he devoured. A young family friend Max Talmud introduced Einstein to higher mathematics and philosophy and by the age of 15 he had already mastered calculus.

Hermann Einstein failed businesses caused the family to move to Milan, but Albert stayed in Munich to finish his studies. At the end of 1894, Albert joined his family in Pavia. At 17, his superb mathematics and physics scores on the entrance exam gained Einstein admission into the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich.

Desiring to be a physics and mathematics teacher, Einstein needed a four-year teaching diploma. In 1896, he passed the Swiss Matura with top grades in mathematics and physics. During this time he fell in love with Mileva Maric, a fellow physics student from Serbia. That same year, Einstein renounced his German citizenship to avoid military conscription.

The Miracle Year
In 1900, Einstein graduated with a Physics Degree and the following year gained his diploma. Einstein also acquired Swiss citizenship. Unable to find a teaching post, Einstein accepted a position as technical assistant in the Swiss Patent office in Bern, Germany. After two years as a patent clerk, Albert Einstein published four Scientific papers in quick succession in the prestigious journal annals of physics.

In 1902, Einstein's father died. That same year Einstein fathered a daughter with Mileva Maric. In 1903, Einstein and Maric married and had Hans Albert and Eduard. During this time, Einstein took refuge in his work.

The 'Miracle Year' - Theory of Relativity
1905 was the 'miracle year' for Einstein as he obtained his doctor's degree. It was also the year he discovered the general Theory of Relativity - one of the 'two pillars of modern physics' and the other being 'quantum mechanics'. He developed his most-famous equation. In 1907, Einstein began applying the laws of gravity to his 'Theory of Relativity'.

In 1909, Einstein became a lecturer at the University of Bern then an associate Professor at the University of Zurich. As an appointed Professor of Theoretical Physics at the Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich, Einstein worked on his new Theory of Gravity. In 1914, Einstein accepted a lucrative research professorship offer from the University of Berlin with full membership in the Prussian Academy of Science and moved his family there.

World War 1
In 1914, World War 1, broke out and Einstein signed anti-war 'Manifesto to Europeans'. After completing his General Theory of Relativity, Einstein joined the 'New Fatherland League' - a pacifist organisation. In 1916, his General Theory of Relativity was published and the following year he wrote a paper on Cosmology. He was appointed Director of Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physics in Berlin.

In 1918, Einstein fell seriously ill and his cousin, Elsa Einstein Loewenthal nursed him. In 1919, Einstein and Mileva divorced and Einstein married his cousin Elsa. That same year, a solar eclipse proved Einstein's General Theory of Relativity and a global science icon was born.

Recognition and Atomic Energy
In 1920, Einstein was appointed to a lifelong honorary visiting professorship at the University of Leiden in Holland. In 1921, Einstein won the Nobel Prize for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect.

During 1921 to 1922, Einstein accompanied, Chaim Weizmann, the future president of the state of Israel, and traveled the world to win support for the cause of Zionism. Later in 1923, Einstein visited, the Far East and Spain where he lectured at various universities. On July 1923, Einstein gave his Nobel Lecture in Gothenburg, Sweden.

Career in America
In 1927, Einstein started developing the foundation of quantum mechanics with Niels Bohr, and pursued his idea of a unified field theory. But hatred grew for the Jewish people in Germany, so Einstein's theory of relativity was referred to as 'Jewish physics.'

Einstein resigned from the Prussian Academy of Science, and between 1930- 1933, Einstein made several visits to the USA delivering lectures at universities. When Adolf Hitler became Chancellor of Germany in 1933, Einstein renounced his citizenship and emigrated to America. He took a position of Professor of Theoretical Physics at Princeton.

The Manhattan Project - Atomic Bomb
In 1939, Einstein and fellow physicist Leo Szilard, wrote to President Roosevelt to develop the nuclear bomb program lest Germany get there before them. This led to the creation of the Manhattan Project, ultimately responsible for the bomb. Einstein wrote later to ask him to abandon the project.

Unfortunately, the nuclear program was launched and two bombs were released on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945. Einstein was deeply shocked and saddened that the bomb brought so much death and destruction. He then lobbied for nuclear disarmament and fought against nuclear tests and bombs.

Numerous Awards and Recognitions
Einstein received honorary doctorate degrees from many European and American universities. He gained numerous awards in recognition of his work, including the Copley Medal of the Royal Society of London in 1925, and the Franklin Medal of the Franklin Institute in 1935.

However, Einstein's gifts inevitably resulted in his dwelling in intellectual solitude, and found relaxation in his music. In 1952, Albert Einstein was offered Presidency of the State of Israel, but he declined. Throughout the '40s and until his death in April 17, 1955, Einstein spoke out against racism and the use of nuclear weapons.

Marriage and Family
Albert Einstein was married to Mileva Marić between 1903 and 1919. They had three children, Lieserl (born 1902), Hans Albert (born 1904) and Eduard (born 1910). They divorced on 14 February 1919, having lived apart for five years.

In 1919, Einstein married Elsa Löwenthal and were together until her death in 1936. On April 18, 1955, Albert Einstein died at Princeton, New Jersey. USA.

Einstein didn't begin speaking until the age of four. Today, the term 'Einstein Syndrome' refers to exceptionally bright people who have early speech problems.

Although he did fail his university entrance exam, 16-year-old Einstein had exceptional scores in physics and math, but didn't do well in other subjects.

Einstein did not create the atomic bomb, but advised President Roosevelt to develop such a weapon, before the Nazi do, which led to the creation of the Manhattan Project.

Einstein was a great musician and loved playing his violin. His mother who played the piano instilled in him a love for music.

He could have been the President of Israel, but Einstein declined offer.

At Einstein's birth, his mother feared that he was deformed, because of his enormous head. However, Einstein grew into his head.

He had promised his Nobel Prize money to his wife upon their divorce, when he won two years later he gave her the money.

He won the 1921 Nobel Prize for Physics -- for the photoelectric effect.

He loved to sail but didn't know how to swim. Ever since university, Einstein sailed as a hobby, but wasn't a good sailor.

He really didn’t like socks, and usually didn’t wear them.

"Imagination is more important than knowledge. Knowledge is limited. Imagination encircles the world."

"Learn from yesterday, live for today, hope for tomorrow. The important thing is not to stop questioning. The important thing is not to stop questioning. Curiosity has its own reason for existing."

"Anyone who has never made a mistake has never tried anything new."

"Nationalism is an infantile sickness. It is the measles of the human race."

"Nothing truly valuable arises from ambition or from a mere sense of duty; it stems rather from love and devotion towards men and towards objective things."

"I very rarely think in words at all. A thought comes, and I may try to express in words afterwards."

"Education is what remains after one has forgotten what one has learned in school."

"I am by heritage a Jew, by citizenship a Swiss, and by makeup a human being, and only a human being, without any special attachment to any state or national entity whatsoever."

"Look deep into nature, and then you will understand everything better."

"Try not to become a man of success, but rather try to become a man of value."


On April 17, 1955, Einstein suffered an abdominal aortic aneurysm and was taken to the University Medical Center at Princeton for treatment but he refused surgery. On 18 April 1955, at aged 76, Albert Einstein died in Princeton Hospital, New Jersey. During the autopsy, Einstein's brain, was removed without his family permission for preservation and future study by doctors of neuroscience. Einstein's remains were cremated, following his wishes. Einstein's brain is at the Princeton University Medical Center, USA.

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